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At present this grammar has 6 paragraphs.

A short


english language version

§ 1.

These are no gods:
        States, peoples, countries and languages are not gods. Please stop deifying them!  Stop writing them in english as if they were gods or divine.
        When we write in english, we should no longer capitalize any adjectives or nouns which cannot be considered to function as proper names or parts of proper names.
        Freethinkers should not conform with authoritarian deification and worship of more or less evil states or (so-called) "nations" by giving them divine initials.
        Instead of "English" we write "english", both as an adjective and as a collective noun, and as name of the language, which is not to be seen as any proper name, but as a common noun, like it is in other languages.
Adjectives:       We are now revising english orthography.
                         Who will be the next british prime minister?
                         The australian continent is mainly desert.
Common nouns:    He said he was an englishman.
                                The people of the islands had never seen any europeans.
                                In the 1950s smog was a nuisance to londoners.
       But we capitalize when e. g. "english" is part of a proper name, thus:  The English Channel.
       Nor should any languages ever be deified. Names of languages are not always proper names. To avoid confusion between adjectives, common nouns and proper names which all have the same form in english, we may consistently spell them with small initials.
1)   He wrote latin poetry (adjective);
2)   He wrote in latin  (common noun, cf. "He wrote in vernacular", or "He wrote in rhyme");
3)   Is latin a difficult language?  (proper name).

       To be allowed freely to spell "english" with a small initial "e" or "norwegian" with a small initial "n" is a matter of religious tolerance in regard to the religions of N/nationalism and S/state nationalism.
       Equally it is a matter of tolerating disbelievers or non-conformist believers when we permit those who may wish so, to spell adjectives and nouns like "muslim", "christian" and "buddhist" without capital initials.
       Freedom of religion implies our human right not to capitalize national or other religious adjectives and common nouns.  Freedom of religion also implies that our use of this right may never be questioned or tampered with.
       We distinguish between common nouns and proper names. Words like "Christianity" and "Taoism" should be written with capital "C" and capital "T" when they can be said to function as proper names of belief systems.
       Adjectives should always be written small:  "jewish", "islamic", "confucian", "christian", "marxist".
          (Besides:  To worship nations and state-nations like deities ought to be a religious sin to christians!  Cf. the first of the ten commandments in the Bible: "You shall have no other gods before me".  However, many church denominations, and especially lutherans and anglicans, teach and practise otherwise..... )

       "Hinduism" can sometimes be seen as a proper name of a religion, (however with many varieties), but "hindu" can never be a proper name. However, "german", "english" and so on, may be both adjectives, common nouns and proper names.
       Compare with usage in other languages with no capital letters in cases like these, not even in names of languages, e. g. the french words: "bouddhisme", "christianisme", "en allemand", "l' anglais".

§ 2.

When definite plural forms should be INDEFINITE :
Think about it:  How AWFULLY often we hear or read someone abusing certain common nouns in the definite plural, e. g. "the germans", even when he or she has NOT before mentioned or presupposed any group of germans, to which the definite plural "the germans" could refer!!
       To say that "the germans prefer to spend their vacations by the Mediterranean", sounds as if all germans together have only one single common will (just like it ought to be in a totalitarian state). But in reality, we know that e. g. quite a considerable minority of all germans of the world prefer to go to Scandinavia on their holidays.
       Think again:  It cannot be true that:
       "The portuguese (= every one of them and everywhere) support the policy of the United States."
       "The danes (= all danes) are optimistic about the future."
       "The norwegians (= absolutey all of them, including in-patients confined to their beds) go skiing in winter."
       "The japanese (= all japanese) make reliable cars."  (But must not many japanese do some other full-time work, to prevent their civilization from breaking down?)
the swedes                  usually means    (some) swedes
the british                   
usually means               british (people)
the french                   
usually means               french (people)
the finns                      
usually means               finns
the chinese                 
usually means               chinese
the arabs                    
usually means               arabs
the americans             
usually means               usanians, or north americans, or
                                                             (some) people who live in the United States,
                                                                         the US government, etc.

        When brainwashed persons say or write "the russians" or "the french", as if EVERY russian or frenchwoman/frenchman should always participate in, should always do, and should always mean exactly the same as all other russian or french people,  -  it is state nationalistic totalitarianism.
        But in reality, those thoughtless persons usually mean (some) russians or (some) french people, - or (some) people in Russia or (some) people in France. Remember also that many people who live in France are NOT french!

        The Daily Telegraph 9.01.2004 misquoted a russian-speaking soldier in Caucasia: "The Russians came here already in 1775."
        This is indeed a false translation, as the russian language has no definite articles!!  And, whether translated or first expressed in english language, non-totalitarians should say: "Russians came here already in 1775". It certainly was not the whole russian people who went to conquer Caucasia in 1775. And few russian serfs of 1775 would have agreed that czarist soldiers arrived in Caucasia to represent the russian people.

       It is also wrong to say that "the danes have managed at the same time to be members of the EU and to stay outside".  "The danes" can never be the same as the state and the realm of Denmark, and it can never be the same as every human being exclusively within the realm of Denmark and nowhere else.
       In democratic language usage we must use the indefinite form when we are not referring to absolutely every individual of an ethnic people, and when we are not referring to any group of individuals whom we have just before mentioned and defined.  This means that the indefinite form is the normal form. It should be the normally used form.

§ 3.

Concerning nature:
       Always remember:
Animals can never have nationality.
       Plants can never have nationality.
       Soil, bedrock, mountains, minerals, glaciers, lakes, rivers and watercourses, coasts, reefs, the weather, climate and seasons, can NEVER have nationality.
       ( If you are in doubt, then ask them if they are english / welsh / austrian / turkish / swedish, etc. , and listen to their answers! )

EXAMPLES (translated):
    The norwegian strain of wolves is much smaller than the swedish one. / The swedish wolves are by far more numerous than the norwegian ones. = There are fewer wolves in the forests of the Eastland of Norway than in the forests farther east / the forests of central and eastern Scandinavia.
    The walls are panelled with norwegian pinewood.
    The Elbe river starts as a czech river before it crosses the border and becomes german. = The Labe-Elbe river runs from eastern Bohemia to the North Sea.
    Hardy to cope with swedish winter = Hardy to cope with nordic winter climate.
    Swedish pines produce better timber than american pines. = Northern european pines produce better timber than most north american pines.  ( South american species of pine are much different from pines of North America. )

       We may name animals and plants from natural geographical regions (but not from purely political or human ethnic entities). Animals and plants can be e. g. african, north african, north american, siberian, arabian, nordic or iberian. But they cannot be moroccan, turkish, belgian, argentine or vietnamese.
       The whole double continent of America may sometimes be seen as a natural geographical macroregion, also with species different from those of Africa and Eurasia. But Canada is no  such region.  Britain is an island, and so it is a natural geographical region. England and Cymru/Wales, however, are no natural geographical regions. But they are cultural regions.
        See also the page: Nature never has nationality.

§ 4.

       In non-nazi language we must avoid unnecessary national adjectives and phrases.
          a bottle of french wine
          costly italian shoes
          two russian circus performers
          a norwegian truck driver
          a swedish invention = an invention
          Seven persons are missing, two of them irish citizens.

       You can find more examples on other pages, especially in the "Ordbok på skandinaviske språk", notably phrases with "norsk" or "svensk".
       However, there are a few established appellations we cannot change, as "the spanish flu" and "russian roulette".

§ 5.

Telling the whereabouts:
       We often tell other people where in the world something is, was, or happened. But we should avoid to indicate the whereabouts according to the "big box system" of state-nations and state-nation territories (as the axiomatic unit of reference for everything).
        Provided that it will not be unreasonable, incomprehensible, or that it must not seem very unnatural to the listener(s) or reader(s), we should indicate locations and positions referring to city, town, village, parish, commune, county, or region - or to a natural country which is not also a state-nation territory.

EXAMPLES (recommended words in italics):
    Our daughter is studying medicine in Hungary in Budapest.
We are considering to buy a house in Spain  in Andalucía, - or: on the Costa del Sol, - or: by the Mediterranean.
    Our new colleague comes from Canada from Hamilton in Ontario.
    An earthquake hit western Turkey Anatolia / parts of western Asia Minor this morning.
    I bought this dress in Indonesia in a village in Java.
    Look! We photoed this marvellous scenery when we were in Sweden... or was it Norway...  in Scandinavia.
    This year we will go to Austria to Tirol / to the Alps for our winter holiday.
    Let us travel on the map along the Danube river from Germany through Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania to the Black Sea  from the Schwarzwald / from the Black Forest to the Black Sea.

§ 6.

 Proper names:
Names of countries, states, republics, etc. may be "translated", or given another form in another language. Example:  Misr is known as Egypt, and Sakartvelo in Caucasia is known to the world as Georgia, and to russians as Gruzjija. And we may continue to say and write Dinamarca or Denmark for Danmark.   (We may translate such names, but we need not, if we do not want to do so.)
       If we refer only to a part of a river, we should say and write e. g. The Rijn, The Rhein, or in Switzerland The Rhi. The river Wiśła is now entirely within polish-speaking areas, and should have its name in the polish way: The Wi
śła (or The Wisla), but never as "Vistula". However, mountain chains and rivers may stretch and run through several areas of different speech. If so, we may use an english name for the whole mountain range or the whole river, e. g. The Danube. If appropriate, we may of course use double names, as Dunărea/Dunav where Romania is on the northern and Bulgaria is on the southern bank.
       Place names should not be translated or changed in form.
       London should be London all over the world, not Londres, Londra or Lontoo. Moskva should always be written that way, not as Moscou or Moskau or Moscow. Trondheim/Trondhjæm may never be called Drontheim, København never Copenhagen, and Athína may never be Athens any more. The capital city of the Roman Empire and now of Italy is Roma, not Rom or Rome.
       Personal proper names should not be translated either. This is a matter of ethnic equivalence and respect of others. Rulers of Denmark should be named Frederik, and rulers of Prussia should be Friedrich, and never rendered as "Frederick".  Saint István (or Szent István) is the name of a renowned holy magyar, in Hungary as it should be in the whole world. Jeanne d' Arc should be named so everywhere (and so she is called in Scandinavia), and english-speakers should learn this correct name to replace "Joan of Arc".
        (This rule also helps to distinguish better, e. g. in history books, between all those Charles, Carlos, Carlo, Carol, Karel and Karl, or between all those Louis, Ludwig, Lodewijk, Ludvík, Lajos, Luís, Luigi and Lodovico.)

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