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WORDBOOK IN ENGLISH


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wordbook, for easier reference.

 WHAT IT MEANS:                                                                          
-----------   =                   the word(s) should or can simply be left out,
and need not be replaced with any other word.
crossed out words  =                             should be replaced or left out.
                                              words in italics  =                  sometimes means words recommended
instead of the crossed out.



          INSTEAD OF:
across the country
USE:   ------------ ,  across the realm,  across the union,   across the territory,   or, e. g.: across Australia
COMMENTARY:  Often the best thing is to omit the phrase. Usually we do not need it.

          INSTEAD OF:
Aix-la-Chapelle
          USE:   Aachen,   Oche
COMMENTARY:  The correct local name is Oche, with short vowels. Aachen is the name in standard german. In dutch it is called Aken. The name "Aix-la-Chapelle" is french, but that name shall not be used in a region where french was never spoken.

          INSTEAD OF:
all over the country ;   when "country" is supposed to be the territory of a state or a union of states
USE:   ------------ ,  all over the realm,  all over the union,   all over the territory,   or, e. g.: all over Australia
COMMENTARY:  Often the best thing is to omit the phrase altogether. Usually we do not need it. Compare also "across the country" and "around the country", as in: "There were relatively few protests around the country, especially compared to the Vietnam War era."

          INSTEAD OF:
Alsace
          USE:   Alsatia,   Elsass,   Elsaß
COMMENTARY:  The neutral name is the latin form Alsatia, traditional in english language. Alsace is the name in french of this country, which has, or, until recently, had an alemannic-speaking majority population. In their language the name is Elsa
ß = Elsass.

          INSTEAD OF:
America
USE:   often: the United States,  often: the USA,  often: the US,  often: North America,   sometimes:  the Union
COMMENTARY:  America is a large double continent stretching almost from the South Pole to the North Pole. We may divide it into South, Central, and North America and the Caribbean Islands, or we may distinguish between North America and Latin America.
       Virginia is in America, but so is also Bolivia, Barbados, Yucatán and Patagonia.
         When speakers of spanish or portuguese language say or write "América", they mean the american continent. When they mean the USA (the U.S.A.), they use the words Norteamérica, norteamericane, or Estados Unidos, estadounidense.  See also below: American.
       The citizens of the United States of America have however usurped the name of the whole double continent to denote their own federal union up in the north. They developed a religious idea from the Bible that they themselves were God's new "elect people" (after God had got frustrated by jews and europeans), and consequently, the (white) population of the United States must now stand above all other peoples of the whole double continent.
       It is a nazi master people (= herrenvolk) attitude to use the name of America as a synonym and exclusively for one's own union and its population, while referring to the rest as Canada and canadians, Perú and peruvians, etc., as if they do not belong to "the real America" created by God, and favoured by him.
       EXAMPLES:   One may hear or read phrases like this: "Cocaine is streaming into America"(!)  -  But cocaine comes from (South) America.(!)  -  In correct non-nazi language this must be: "Cocaine is streaming into North America.
       George Bush Jr. was often referred to as "America's 43rd president"(!), which of course is a horrible master people's lie!  There have been many hundred presidents (= heads of state) in all America, South, Central and North!  Consequently, Mr Bush ought to be numbered "the 43rd usanian president", "the 43rd US president", or "the union's 43rd president".
       To say about the mistakes of George Bush jr. that they damaged "... not only the President's authority but also America's", is a lie, because it neither damaged Canada nor any part of Latin America. Instead of "... but also America's" one may say e. g.: "... but also that of the US" or "... but also the authority of the United States".

          INSTEAD OF:
American ;   adjective, when NOT referring to THE WHOLE CONTINENT, i. e. South, Central, and North America as a whole
USE:   usanian,  -------------------,   north american,  anglo-american,  of the United States,  of the US,   in the US,   from the US,   USA-,  US-american,  (usonian)
          when in contrast to "american indian/amerindian"
          USE:   euro-american
COMMENTARY:   See also above: America.
       The architect Frank Lloyd Wright introduced the word "usonian" when he designed his low-cost usonian houses for workers in the 1930s, probably referring both to the the verb "to use" and to the name of the USA.
       But "usanian" instead of "usonian" suits better with the noun USA. Such adjectives may end either in "-onian" or in "-anian". From Caledonia we have "caledonian", but from Tripolitania we have "tripolitanian".
       Collins English Dictionary explains the adjective "American" as follows:  1. of or relating to the United States of America, its inhabitants, or their form of English;  2. of or relating to the American continent;  3. Rare. of or relating to the American Indians.  -  Out of those three meanings, the first one must be deleted.
       In spanish language, "estadounidense" is the normal adjective for anything "relating to the United States" and is the same as usanian. The spanish word is derived from Estados Unidos (EE UU) = United States (US). - Castilian spanish is also state language of most latin american states. But, in France, they only recognize people of the USA as americans! What spanish-speaking people say about "estadounidense" is always translated into french as "américain", "américaine", "américains", "américaines"...!
       Also in spanish, "norteamericano" may be a synonym for "estadounidense".  EXAMPLES:  "España tiene intereses nacionales propios, diferentes de los norteamericanos." - "... la conducta agresiva anglo-norteamericana" - "Su primera mujer fue norteamericana".  But logically, what is canadian ought also to be included in "norteamericano".
       In italian, the name Usa is used as both noun and adjective.  EXAMPLES:  "resistere alla arroganza Usa", - "il presidente Usa Bush", - "il base Usa", - meaning: usanian.
       In german, we sometimes find the adjective "US-amerikanisch" and the noun "US-Präsident". This too is a good solution to the "problem", and it should be borrowed into the vocabularies of other languages, not least the english language.
       In finnish language, the USA is normally called "Yhdysvallat", from the verb "yhtyä" = "to unite" and the plural "vallat" from "valta" = "state" or "power". Less frequently we meet the acronym USA, which finns inflect in several grammatical cases. The adjective "yhdysvaltalainen" for "usanian" is quite common, especially in factual prose, but, alas, "amerikkalainen" is more frequent in colloquial language.
       The word "euro-american" suits well in contexts of the so-called "American frontier", when usanians of today pretend that they are/were the real "americans" and they consider indigenous "amerindian" peoples of North America to be something else. Cf. "afro-american".  Let us correct the following examples from the book "Die Macht der Karten" (Darmstadt 2004):  "Als Frontier, Grenzzone charakterisierte der amerikanische US-amerikanische Historiker Frederick Jackson Turner die Geschichte seines Landes und den Prozess der Amerikanisierung Europäisierung seit der ersten Besiedlung. ..... Indem Turner die Frontier als Zone oder Grenze der fortschreitender Amerikanisierung Euro-Amerikanisierung charakterisierte ...."
        Due to the usanian usurpation and pretended monopoly of the terms "America" and "american", many people in Canada dislike to be called "americans". They want to be named "canadians", but most canadians also accept to be called "north americans".

          INSTEAD OF:
the American people
         
USE:   usanians,  the population of the United States,  north american peoples
COMMENTARY:   The usage = abuse of "american" by usanians propagates the message that the other inhabitants of the american double continent do not count as human beings.

          INSTEAD OF:
the American Revolution
          USE:   the North American Revolution
COMMENTARY:   There were many "american revolutions", most of them in Latin America in the 1800s.

          INSTEAD OF:
Americans ;   noun, plural,  when NOT about population / peoples of the WHOLE double continent
USE:   U.S. residents,  U.S. citizens,  usanians,  north americans,  U.S. population
COMMENTARY:   In spanish language we have the noun "estadounidense", which is also an adjective, and which corresponds to "usanian".  EXAMPLE (from the newspaper El País):  "hay 18 estadounidenses y una canadiense".
       See also:  American.

          INSTEAD OF:
America's economy
         
USE:   the U.S. economy,  the usanian economy,  economy of the United States

           INSTEAD OF:
anti-Americanism
         
USE:   anti-usanianism,  anti-US (attitude),  anti-US hostilty,  anti-US criticism

             INSTEAD OF:
anti-Semitism
         
USE:   either:  anti-judaism,  hostility to jews,  hatred against jews,
                    
or:  anti-israelism,  anti-sionism
COMMENTARY:   Arabs too are semitic peoples. Arabic languages are semitic languages, just as berber, maltese, hebrew and some more are also semitic languages. When the word "anti-semitic" is misused, it may even, - and indeed often, - happen that Israel's arabic adversaries are described as "anti-semitic", which would mean that those arabs are enemies of themselves!
       Finnish-speakers use the correct word: juutalaisvastaisuus, meaning anti-judaism or hostility towards jews. However, in wordbooks from finnish it is translated with the current and misleading english term "antisemitism".
       To criticize the state of Israel or its current policies, usually does NOT mean to be an enemy of all jews of the world. People may be friends of jews or of the jewish religion, and still be opposed to the ideology or the actions of the state of Israel.

          INSTEAD OF:
Antwerp
          USE:   Antwerpen
COMMENTARY:  See Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.

          INSTEAD OF:
around the country
USE:   ------------- ,  around the realm,  around the union,  around the territory,   or, e.g.: around Australia
COMMENTARY:   Often the best thing is to omit the phrase altogether, as in "There were relatively few protests around the country, especially compared to the Vietnam War era."

          INSTEAD OF:
balkanization, balkanize
          USE:  pluralization,   dismemberment,   partition,   devolution,   decentralization
          self-determination, 
 and the corresponding verbs:  pluralize,   dismember,   etc.
COMMENTARY:  The word "balkanization" is associated exclusively with negative historic experiences, conflicts and wars. But self-determination of peoples and regions in general ought to be regarded positively. Therefore, we should never use the word "balkanization" any more.
          Collins English Dictionary defines "balkanize" like this: "to divide (a territory) into small warring states". Thus, conflict and war is implicated in the meaning of the word, and so it is wrong when Le Monde uses the word "balkaniser" about a possible partition of Belgium.


          INSTEAD OF:
Basle
          USE:   Basel

          INSTEAD OF:
the British people
          USE:  the british peoples
COMMENTARY:  "The british people" is an improper and totalistic state phrase. It is well-known that there are several, even many, different peoples in Britain, both indigenous - celtic and anglo-saxon - and immigrant peoples, being citizens of Britain / United Kingdom.


          INSTEAD OF:
Bruges
          USE:   Brugge

          INSTEAD OF:
e. g. Swedish citizen
         
USE:   citizen of Sweden,  subject of Sweden,  member of Sweden
COMMENTARY:   It is a state totalitarian lie to pretend that all citizens of e. g. Sweden should be ethnically swedish. A citizen of a state like Sweden may well be of another scandinavian ethnicity, or she or he may be an immigrant of e. g. kurdish, arab, berber or latin american ethnicity = nationality. Similar possibilities apply to all other citizenships, whether of Italy, Russia, India, or any other state in the world.

          INSTEAD OF:
civil war
         
USE:   domestic war,  (interior war),  war
COMMENTARY:   Participant groups or individuals in what is usually called "civil wars" are not always citizens of the state or states affected. They may also be much more "military" than "civil".  Cf. also the norwegian and danish word  borgerkrig  in the scandinavian wordbook.

          INSTEAD OF:
Cologne
          USE:   Köln
COMMENTARY:  See Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.

          INSTEAD OF:
Copenhagen
          USE:   Kĝbenhavn,   (Kobenhavn)

          INSTEAD OF:
country
USE:   sometimes: state,  sometimes: state territory,  sometimes: republic,  sometimes: realm,  sometimes: empire,  sometimes: countries,  sometimes: use the name of state in question, e. g. Britain, Poland, Japan,  when about the USA: union, or: union territory
COMMENTARY:   Among many others, the Encyclopaedia Britannica names all sovereign states "countries", which is a horrible falsification of true geography.
       The word "country" should only mean a naturally (and not politically) defined geographical area. Some examples of true countries are:  Moravia, Transylvania, Skåne/Scania, the Lake District, Cumberland or Cumbria, Andalusia, Manchuria, Korea, (The) Sahara, Assam, (The) Himalayas, The Rift Valley (in Africa), Ivory Coast, Gabon, Mato Grosso, (the Banda Oriental del) Uruguay, and of course islands like Java, Cuba, Iceland, Sicily and Tasmania.
       We have no short and convenient expression that helps us to distinguish between a republic as a polity and the territory ruled by a republic. However, the english language fortunately has a distinction between "kingdom" and "realm".  A "realm" is defined as a "royal domain", that is the territory of a kingdom. The meaning of the word "kingdom" may thus be delimited to a monarchy as a polity, and then should no more mean the territory which belongs to a kingdom.  See also the words "state territory" and "realm" in Definitions and fundamental concepts.
       Collins English Dictionary lists the following definition of "empire":  "an aggregate of peoples and territories, often of great extent, under the rule of a single person, oligarchy or sovereign state". Note: sovereign state.  In this sense "empire" would translate into scandinavian not as "keiserdømme" but as "imperium", and even Brazil, China and Russia of today
would be empires.
       When "country" is misused to mean some republic's "state territory" which consists of many true countries, as most large state territories do, we can also change the abused singular form into the plural, e. g. "It spread all over the countries" (= of the state territory).
       When "the country" is misused to mean the population of a state, we may instead say "the public", or we may say "people" - with no definite article.
       See also the word: nation, with many different cases and examples.

          INSTEAD OF:
developing country
         
USE:   development region,  development regions,  development area

          INSTEAD OF:
dialect
          USE:    often: language,  often: regional language,  often: vernacular (language)
COMMENTARY:    The word "dialect" is often used in a discriminating and contemptuous manner. It is especially the case in some states, as Sweden and France, but this condition also applies more generally throughout the world.
       See also: dialekt  in the scandinavian wordbook.

          INSTEAD OF:
English currency
          USE:   pound sterling,  Britain currency
COMMENTARY:   N. B.!  Not "british" but Britain currency. Currencies are connected with states, republics and realms, - but not with any so called nationality. Therefore it is "Sweden currency", not "swedish", and we apply the same rule in the case of Britain.

          INSTEAD OF:
English oak
          USE:   northern european oak

          INSTEAD OF:
Florence
          USE:   Firenze
COMMENTARY:  See Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.

          INSTEAD OF:
GB ;   as a symbol of Britain
          USE:   UK
          
as a symbol of english language version
          USE:   eng.

             INSTEAD OF:
Geneva
          USE:   Genève

         
INSTEAD OF:
Gothenburg
          USE:   Göteborg,   (Goteborg)

         
INSTEAD OF:
Great Britain
          USE:   Britain
COMMENTARY:   British people themselves do not say or write the long and unwieldy name "Great Britain", but only Britain. (By the way, it is no "great" empire any longer.) The name "Great Britain" is arrogant hubris, and may be compared to the name "Grossdeutsches Reich".
        However, it is more difficult to reform usage in french language. In french, one distinguishes between "Grande-Bretagne" which denotes the large island of Britain, and "Bretagne" which is the country of Armorica / Breiz / Breizh / Bretagne southwest of the English Channel and which is called "Brittany" in english. But when french-speakers mean the british state or its whole state territory, they often call it "Royaume Uni", quite like british people who name it "United Kingdom".
       Cf. also below: Sri Lanka, which should be Lanka.
      
          INSTEAD OF:
Gross National Product = GNP
         
USE:   Gross Domestic Product = GDP,   Gross Product = GP
COMMENTARY:   It is no less than sensational that the english language, which is the primary source,  diffusor, and, together with the french language, the primary disease carrier of all confusion and fraud about "nations", - that this english language has in the last 20 years much replaced its former expression "Gross National Product" by "Gross Domestic Product".
          "Gross Domestic Product" is of course much better, but is no ideal term. How much is Sicily "domestic" to a piedmontese? How much is Rio Grande do Sul "domestic" to people of the Nordeste or the Amazonas? And isn't Vancouver more domestic than Miami to those who live in Seattle?
          When we speak of all mankind, there is a new term available in english: GGP = Gross Global Product, and there is a corresponding near synonym: GGI = Gross Global Income.
          In german language we have at least two terms for the misleading "GNP".  "Bruttoinlandsprodukt" is not so good, because "Land", i. e. "country", should not be used as synonym to "state territory" or "state". The other german word in use is "Bruttosozialprodukt". Since 1945, most germans want to avoid the word "national" - and other peoples ought to learn this habit too.  -  In french, the term "produit intérieur brut" = PIB is used, and it means "interior", which is within the state territory (or the so-called "domestic"). The same acronym PIB is used in spanish and portugese, but not in italian. In spanish it stands for either Producto Interno Bruto, or Producto Interior Bruto. In portuguese it is "produto interno bruto".
          The second part of the term or letter of the acronym is often unnecessary. The context sometimes allows us to omit it, so it is just simply: Gross Product = GP.
          See also commentaries in the scandinavian wordbook to:  "bruttonationalprodukt" = bruttoriksprodukt, or bruttoprodukt.

          INSTEAD OF:
Guatemala City

          USE:   Ciudad de Guatemala

          INSTEAD OF:
Holland ;   except if you mean the provinces of Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland only.
          USE:   (the) Netherlands,  (the) Low Countries
COMMENTARY:   Holland is only a minor part of (the state and realm of) the Netherlands. Dutch people use the name Holland only for the country to the west and south-west of the Ijsselmeer/Zuiderzee, which country is the two provinces of Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland.
          In french the name of the state and realm is (les) Pays-Bays, which is the same as (the) Low Countries. We have similar names in italian (Paesi Bassi), catalan (Països Baixos), spanish (Países Bajos), and in  portuguese (os Países Baixos).
          In english, we should prefer the name Netherlands, which is much similar to the name in dutch: Nederland.
          However, there is a problem about the name Netherlands in earlier history. The name Belgium was never (or very seldom) used in the centuries before 1815 or 1830. From the later 1500s, what is now called Belgium was referred to as the Spanish Netherlands until 1713, and from then as the Austrian Netherlands until the peace settlements of 1814/1815. But a better name would be: the Southern
or South Netherlands. For this period of history, we can use english names as the North(ern) Netherlands or the Dutch Netherlands for what is now the state and realm of Nederland = the Netherlands. Cf. the names North Korea and South Korea. For the same period another english name has also been used for that state and realm: The United Provinces.

          INSTEAD OF:
Ibiza
          USE:   Eivissa
COMMENTARY:   We, and all tourist agencies! - should use the catalan name of this island. All Balearic Islands belong to the area of catalan-speakers. Castilian (= "spanish") is not a native language in Eivissa.

          INSTEAD OF:
international
USE:   -------------- , multi-state,   worldwide,   world,   global,   in the world,   of the world,   vast,   far-reaching,   interstatal,   transstatal,   suprastatal,   interstate,   transstate,   transboundary,   intergovernmental,   interpolity,   continental,   intercontinental,   transcontinental,   interregional,   transregional,   stateless,    etc.
COMMENTARY:   The confounding and confusion of "nation" with state and total population of a state is absolutely unacceptable.
       The word "international" is generally misused for relations between states, governments, and societies under their rule. Much more seldom do we meet this word used in its correct sense to denote relations between peoples as real, cultural nations, that is, as ethnic communities.
       In about half the cases when you meet the word "international" in its false sense, the best way to handle it is to delete it as a superfluous word, without replacing it with anything else.
       The platitudinous phrase "the international community" can be replaced by "the world community", or "the majority of the world community".
       The term "international law" must be changed into "intergovernmental law" or "interpolity law". (The term "interstate law" in english cannot replace it, because of its separate meaning of relations between member states of the USA, Australia, and some other unions, and sometimes it means the same as "federal law".)
       With reference to relations between parts only of two or more state territories, and parts of two or more state populations, we ought to use words which have "-region-" in them. When continents or large parts of the world are concerned, the words we choose ought to indicate such meaning.

              INSTEAD OF:

International Airport
         
USE:   often:  Airport,   airport,   big airport,  or, if really necessary:  Interstate Airport
COMMENTARY:   There is some difficulty with this term "interstate" in the USA, because the USA is a union of states. In the USA, "interstate" often means "between (federal) states within the USA".
        Also when an airport has been "baptized" by a name with "International" in it, we must be allowed to cross out that word.

          INSTEAD OF:
international terrorism
          USE:   terrorism
COMMENTARY:   In this phrase, the word "international" is in almost every case superfluous and meaningless, and indeed nothing but stupid!!  Not seldom it is totally wrong, as when nationalistic basque terrorists of the ETA are labeled "international" terrorists! - which must be
horribly misleading!

          INSTEAD OF:
international trade
USE:   trade,   world trade,   global trade,   transstate trade,  interstate trade,   continental trade

          INSTEAD OF:
League of Nations
         
USE:   First League of States,  or: so-called "League of Nations"
COMMENTARY:   See also: United Nations.

             INSTEAD OF:
Lisbon
          USE:   Lisboa
COMMENTARY:  See Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.

          INSTEAD OF:
Low German
          USE:   north german
COMMENTARY:   The language of the northern plains of Germany was in high and late Middle Ages the leading language of culture and trade in Northern Europe.
       Leaving the frisian languages out, - we divide the germanic spoken languages of Germany, the Netherlands and the alpine countries into 3 main groups. In standard german language of today they are named Niederdeutsch, Mitteldeutsch and Oberdeutsch. Nedderdütsch/Niederdeutsch is in english called "low german". The language which is called "high german" (Hochdeutsch) is built from middle german speech (Mitteldeutsch). This was the language chosen by Luther. Today it is standard language of Germany and Austria. The area of so-called high german speech covers middle german and upper german = Mitteldeutsch und Oberdeutsch.
       We should note that the name "high german" originally did not mean that this language is/was higher of rank or more "developed" than "low german". "High german" means highland german. The language boundary closely follows the natural border between the lowlands of the north and the highlands (more than 200 m. above sea level) in central and southern Germany, Austria, and the Alps.
       In the north, the land is flat nearly everywhere, i. e. "platte land". This gave the north german language one of its names: Plattdütsch/Plattdeutsch. The other name is Nedderdütsch/Niederdeutsch.
       Those names do not have the same general implication of something inferior in Germany as they have in Scandinavia and perhaps in Britain. The word "Niederdeutsch" can be as neutral as the name of the state of Niedersachsen. In Bremen they have the important Institut für niederdeutsche Sprache, and the language is represented in theatres, books, broadcasting and television.
       In Scandinavia the words "låg", "lav", "låk" and "platt" have mostly or only negative connotations, more so than in english. But we ought also to replace "low german" by "north german" in the english language.

          INSTEAD OF:
Luxembourg
          USE:   for the grand duchy and its territory:  Luxemburg, or: Lëtzebuerg
                     for the city:  Lëtzebuerg
COMMENTARY:   At least until the 1960s, the name of this state and of its capital city was written in the traditional way in english: "Luxemburg", which also agrees with the english pronunciation of the name.
       Because this is also the standard german way of spelling the name, it was around the 1960s replaced by the french spelling: "Luxembourg", which then became the norm in english as well as in norwegian and danish (but not in swedish). The state and grand duchy of Lëtzebuerg / Luxemburg / Luxembourg is trilingual, and has been so for many centuries. In 1839 the western part of its territory, where the majority spoke wallonian and a minority spoke
(germanic) moselfrankish, was incorporated with Belgium. In the remaining eastern part, the upper classes continued to use both french and (standard) german, while common people continued to speak their moselfrankish.
       After the 2nd World War luxemburgers wanted to repress standardized high german. French was made sole official language. But those conditions soon changed . Most people are no longer anti-german, and they now see privileges of french language as artificial and unjustified.
       Since long, lëtzebuergesch is now an official language and language of lower education. Immigrants must have a good command of lëtzebuergesch to become citizens of Lëtzebuerg. From 1946 some coins and banknotes had the name "Letzeburg" or "Lëtzebuerg" on them, and now it is only "Lëtzebuerg" on the euro coins made for this member state.
       If we follow the rules of Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6, which see, we must use "Lëtzebuerg" as name of  the city. For the state and its territory we can use either "Luxemburg" or "Lëtzebuerg".
       ( The letter "ë" is pronounced as a vowel between european "e" and "o" - and corresponds to "ô" in many regional languages of Scandinavia. )

          INSTEAD OF:
mediaeval / medieval
          USE:   sometimes: obsolete
COMMENTARY:   Regimes and powers of medieval Europe were on the whole less despotic and generally used less "barbaric" means than later during the 1500s, 1600s and 1700s.
      
What is nowadays so often misleadingly branded as "medieval" has in fact less to do with european medieval society and more with despotic monarchies of the centuries which followed after the Middle Ages.
       There was no state nationalism in the High Middle Ages. We cannot note this trend before the Late Middle Ages. Despotic state nationalism did not dominate until the 1600s in the nordic area, and not until still later in the rest of Europe.
       When even well educated intellectuals of today name especially oppressive or obsolete regimes "medieval", this is nothing less than falsification of history and state totalitarian propaganda, brainwashing, and throwing mud at a european civilization which almost everywhere was decentralized and non-national.
       It is objectively wrong and dishonest in regard of history to label as "medieval" anything that one wants to describe as especially despotic or narrow-minded.

          INSTEAD OF:
Mexico City

          USE:   Ciudad de México

             INSTEAD OF:
Moscowabout the city
         
USE:   Moskva
COMMENTARY:  See Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.  For the principality we may use the name Muscovy, which is traditional in english language.

          INSTEAD OF:
multi-national
          USE:   ---------------,   multi-state,   multi-ethnic

             INSTEAD OF:
Munich
          USE:   München

         
INSTEAD OF:
Naples about the city, but not about the kingdom, state and realm
         
USE:   Napoli

         
INSTEAD OF:
nation
USE:   state,   republic,   realm,   empire,   federation,   confederation,   federal state,
states-union,   union,   -----------,   polity,   society,   power,   state power,   population,
(the) public
COMMENTARY:  The word "nation" and its derivatives have become unusable, due to grotesque corruption of this word in the english and french languages. Very unfortunately, the corrupted, false and destructive meaning of "nation" as equal to "state", "union of states" and "total population of a state" has been propagated to large parts of our world from France, Britain and the United States of America.
       The world community must abandon this state totalitarian abuse of the word "nation". We should use it only in its original and genuinely ethnical meaning.
       See the links:  Definitions and fundamental concepts, and Correct use of words.
       The word "realm" does not correspond exactly to the scandinavian "rike" and "rige" or the german "Reich", because "realm" has been used only about states which are monarchies. "Realm" means "a royal domain", i. e the territory of a kingdom. However, "realm" may also be used about (independent) duchies like Luxemburg and Liechtenstein.
       The Freethinker's Wordbook now recommends that we use the word "realm" also for state territories of republics.
       Even if the scandinavian "rike" is derived from a stem "rik-" meaning "a ruler", this word may nowadays also mean a republic like e. g. Finland.
       A "kingdom" however, should in english mean "system of monarchy", but ought not any more to mean its territory. It is true that we may meet such use/abuse of "kingdom", for instance on maps: "kingdom of Denmark-Norway", but we must recommend to distinguish between "realm" for territory and population, and "kingdom" for constitution and polity. There is no english word "kingric", corresponding to "bishopric". In scandinavian we have "bispedømme" and "kongerike" for territorial units, while "kongedømme" means monarchy, which is a kind of constitution.
       In english there is no (accurate) term for a "realm" which is not connected with a monarchy. Does anybody know or can anybody suggest any better alternative than "realm" and "state territory" to denote such a political-geographical unit? - when neither "republic", "union" or "federation", etc. suits or sounds well?
       To be seen as an exception, we may still use "United Kingdom" to mean both the (never written) constitution with its political system and the territories covered by that system (= Britain and Northern Ireland).
       Collins English Dictionary lists the following definition of "empire":  "an aggregate of peoples and territories, often of great extent, under the rule of a single person, oligarchy or sovereign state". So even Russia, China, India and Brazil of today, when they are no longer ruled by emperors, may still be called "empires".
       "Nation" in totalitarian newspeak english may sometimes be translated by "society". When Ronald Reagan declared that "Our Nation is at Risk", he ought to have said "Our society is at risk".
       When "the nation" is misused to mean the population of a state, we may instead say "the public", or we may say "people" - with no definite article.
       When speaking of e. g. the USA and Britain, and "the relations between the two countries / nations", of which one is a union of states and the other is a single state, we can solve the "problem" by saying: "the relations between the two powers".
       Instead of  "...an archipelago split between two nations" (about Kiribati and the USA), one should write:  "an archipelago politically split between two state powers".
       Most examples above refer to cases of so-called "nations" in the sense of polities and territories, but not in the sense of human beings. When we mean "inhabitants", we should use words like e. g. population.
       Sometimes we can substitute more open words like "people" or "we" for the false concept of "the nation", as in:  "Jacob Needleman.... warned.... that the nation we must come to terms with the new spiritual-intellectual alliances in California."
       The following german definition of Nation has been taken from the schoolbook "Grundzüge der Geschichte, Band 3" (= Essential features of history, 3rd vol.):  "NATION. Für dies Wort hat sich bis heute keine in aller Welt geltende Begriffsdefinition finden lassen. Es kommt von lat. nasci = geboren werden. Die Römer nannten 'natio' eine Gruppe von Menschen gleicher Abstammung, Lebensart und Heimat. Im Mittelalter nannte man die verschiedenen Stämme 'nationes'. In der Neuzeit gewann das Wort im Englischen und Französischen die Bedeutung von 'Staat'. Der Völkerbund (1920) hiess League of Nations, bzw. Société des Nations. Auch in der United Nations Organization (UNO) sind die Mitgliedstaaten Nations genannt.
    Bei uns versteht man unter Nation eine langdauernde Lebensgemeinschaft von einer gewissen Gleichartigkeit der äusserlichen Lebensweise sowie des Denkens und Fühlens, die sich ihrer Zusammengehörigkeit bewusst ist und auch künftig ein gemiensames Leben führen will.
    Gründet sich das Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühl auf gemeinsame Kulturleistungen, so spricht man von
Kulturnation. Lebt die Kulturnation in einem Staat (wie in England und Frankreich schon verhältnismässig früh), so ist sie auch eine Staatsnation. Italien und Polen waren lange Kulturnationen ohne Staatsnationen zu sein."
      
N.B.!  The last two sentences are disputable.
       See also below.

          INSTEAD OF:
nation ;   about Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, Micronesia, Nigeria, Russia, Venezuela
          USE:   state,   federation,   federative state,   republic

          INSTEAD OF:
nation
;   about Australia
          USE:   state,   federation,   federative state,   commonwealth,   realm

          INSTEAD OF:
nation ;   about Belgium or Malaysia
          USE:   state,   federation,   federative state,   realm

          INSTEAD OF:
nation
;   about present-day Austria or Germany
          USE:   state,   federative state,   republic

          INSTEAD OF:
nation
;   about Scotland or Wales
          USE:   realm,   country,   region,   or use their names!

          INSTEAD OF:
nation
;   about Switzerland
          USE:   confederation,  or:  federation

          INSTEAD OF:
nation
;   about the USA, United Arab Emirates, Myanmar (and formerly Burma)
          USE:   union,   state union
COMMENTARY:  Abu Dhabi, Alabama, Alaska, Angola and Algeria are states. The USA is a union of states.
       The single word "union" is often used as short for "trade union" or "labor union". In cases of doubt, we may use the term "state union" for a union of states like the USA (or the EU). Or we may use their acronyms (USA, EU).

          INSTEAD OF:
e. g.  a Swedish national
          USE:   e. g.  a citizen of Sweden,  a subject of Sweden,  or:  -------------
COMMENTARY:  This example was noted when delegates from Indonesia visited Sweden concerning leaders of a liberation movement in Aceh who had settled and acquired citizenship of Sweden. Indonesians falsely referred to those immigrants from Asia as "swedish nationals".
       In a phrase like "Danish national X X Nielsen" (found in Time Magazine's notebook on a criminal case in India), "danish national" ought to be omitted as irrelevant. If however, in some other case and for some reason, such information should be considered necessary, it had better be placed after the name and in brackets, thus: "X X Nielsen (citizen of Denmark)".

          INSTEAD OF:
national
;   (adjective)
USE:  ------------,   domestic,   societal,   statal,   state,   central,   of the realm,   of the state,   of the union,   realm-related,   state-related,   realmwide,   statewide,   unionwide,   wide,   extensive,   state-level,   union-level,   unional,   one-state,   realm,   sometimes:   collective,   common
EXAMPLES and COMMENTARY:  "at the end of the 11th century, the national annual income has been estimated at £400.000", should read: ".... the annual income of the (whole) realm has been ....". 
       "the size of the national money supply (= realm's / kingdom's money supply) had an important influence on the national economy." - In the second case, the word "national" should simply be left out.
       Instead of ".... mercantilist preoccupaton with national money stock... ", it would be better to say ".... with domestic money stock". In current english of today we speak of "domestic trade" when we mean exchange of commodities within a state territory. - And instead of declaring that "national wealth did not lie in a stock of metal", we could say that societal wealth (or society's wealth) did not depend on metal.
       The words "wide", "widespread" or "extensive" may also be good substitutes, as in:  "....reached the proportions of a national grassroots movement" = "a wide grassroots movement".
       Note that words like "state" and "realm" should also be usable for adjectives, not only as nouns.
       ( The word "unional" is not in Collins English Dictionary. The word "statal" too is seldom found in dictionaries. )

          INSTEAD OF:
national anthem
          USE:   state song,   state music

          INSTEAD OF:
national assembly
          USE:   parliament,   state assembly
COMMENTARY:  To avoid the corrupted word "national", we may replace such denominations of assemblies with the more neutral "parliament". Or, in special cases we may use names like "duma", "sejm", "knesset" or "riksdag". To use the word "parliament" is also possible in the case of France after 1800, so that the so-called "assemblée nationale" of our time may be called a "parliament" in english.
       However, we must make an exception for the conditions in France prior to the napoleonic era. Before the revolution of 1789, "parlements" was in France the name of several regional courts of justice. The assembly that met in Versailles in May 1789 was "les états généraux", the estates general.  (We should also use the traditional names of the different assemblies of the revolutionary years in France: assemblée nationale 1789-1791, assemblée legislative 1791-1792, convention nationale 1792-1795.)

          INSTEAD OF:
national boundaries
         
USE:   state boundaries,   political boundaries,   realm boundaries

          INSTEAD OF:
national debt

          USE:   state debt;   about the USA:  federal debt
COMMENTARY:  In scandinavian languages it is called statsgæld, statsgjeld, statsskuld, and never with any other name.

          INSTEAD OF:
national economy
          USE:   societal economy,   state economy,   federal economy,   social economy
COMMENTARY:  Scandinavian languages nowadays use the word "sosialøkonomi". "Social" in this sense does not refer to socialist ideas, but to "society". So we could say "societal economy" in english.

          INSTEAD OF:
national elections
USE:   state elections,   state level elections,   union elections,   federal elections,   U.S. elections,   US elections

          INSTEAD OF:
national government  = in e.g. Australia, or in other federations
         
USE:   central government,   federal government

          INSTEAD OF:
national holidaynational day

          USE:   state day,   state holiday,   state celebration day
COMMENTARY:  Because the USA is not one state, but a union of many states, we had better name the 4th July "United States Day" or "US-Day".

             INSTEAD OF:
national interest(s)
          USE:   state interest(s),   interest
COMMENTARY:  Instead of "It is in our national interest", just say: "It is in our interest", - which is the best alternative. Not so good is: "in our state interest(s)".

          INSTEAD OF:
national park

          USE:   conservation area,   nature reserve,   nature park
COMMENTARY:  "National parks" do not exist anywhere, because this is impossible. Nature can never have a nationality. When any part of nature is falsely labelled with the nazi appellation "national park", we must give it another name and description.
        See also:  Nature never has nationality.

          INSTEAD OF:
national resources

          USE:   resources,   natural resources,   economic resources

          INSTEAD OF:
national security

          USE:   state security,   in the USA: union security,   U.S. security,   US security

          INSTEAD OF:
nationality
USE:   usually: citizenship,   sometimes: state membership,   subject of state,   appertainer of state,   ethnic community,   ethnicity
COMMENTARY:  Collins English Dictionary lists five different meanings of "nationality", but not even one of them is unequivocal and satisfactory.
       We must reestablish the distinction between "nationality" = ethnic community and "citizenship", like it is in central and east european languages (e. g. german, finnish, russian).
       Even the dictionary translation of the modern concept of "citizen" (once derived from "city") into german as "Staatsbürger" is not the best available, because "Bürger" and its equivalents "bourgeois" in french and "borger" in danish and norwegian historically mean a member of a town or city. Citizenship should translate into german as "Staatsangehöriger". This german word is explained literally in english as "appertainer of (a) state".
       Citizenship applies to members of confederations (e. g. the cantons of Switzerland), to all territorial states, and among them even to states that never claimed to be or to represent any "nation", as in the case of soviet citizenship.
       The minorities' organization "FUEN = Federal Union of European Nationalities" is in german named "FUEV = Föderalistische Union Europäischer Volksgruppen", in russian it is "FSENM = Federalistskij Sojuz Evropejskikh National'nikh Men'shinstv", and in french "UFCE = Union Fédéraliste des Communautés Ethniques Européennes". - In english it would be better to use a literal translation of the french "communauté ethnique" into "ethnic community" when what we mean corresponds to the german word "Volksgruppe" or the scandinavian "folkslag".
       See also the links: Introduction to subjectDefinitions and fundamental concepts, and  Correct use of words.

          INSTEAD OF:
nationalization

          USE:   state takeover,   statal takeover,   state taking over,   state ownership,  
          making statal


          INSTEAD OF:
nationally
;   when a synonym to "nationwide"
USE:   statewide,   realmwide,   unionwide,   all over the territory,   all over the empire

          INSTEAD OF:
nation-building
USE:   state-building,   statism,   state nationalism,   state-nationalism,   state-nationification,   state-nationalistic propaganda,   state-nationalistic totalism,   state-nationalistic permeating,   state-nationalistic pervasion

             INSTEAD OF:
nationhood
          USE:   often:  statehood

          INSTEAD OF:
nation-state

          USE:   state,   state-nation,   single state
COMMENTARY: Which word is placed before the hyphen and which is placed after it, makes a great difference indeed!
       What is meant is NOT any state created by a nation, but quite the other way round. What it is about, is an artificial spurious so-called "nation" which has been invented and created by a state.
       The term in english language is misleading. But in this case we find correct expressions in both french and german: état-nation and Staatsnation.

          INSTEAD OF:
nationwide
USE:   statewide,   realmwide,   unionwide,   all over the territory,   all over the realm,  
all over the empire,   widespread
EXAMPLE:  Instead of "a nationwide obsession", we may say and write: "a widespread obsession".

          INSTEAD OF:
Norway maple

          USE:   nordic maple
COMMENTARY:   The latin name of the tree is Acer platanoides. In Sweden it is usually called "skogslönn", more seldom by the swedish bio-nazi-state name "svensk lönn". In Norway its name is "spisslønn", because of its pointed leaves, but it is also called "skoglønn", which means "forest maple" in english.

          INSTEAD OF:
Norway spruce

          USE:   nordic spruce,   european spruce
COMMENTARY:  Its latin name is Picea abies. One definition: a european spruce tree having drooping branches and dark green needle-like leaves.
       In the bio-nazi book "Norsk naturleksikon" from the Reader's Digest we may read this most ridiculous remark about the english name as being "flattering" to Norway:  "I alle engelsktalende land heter vår gran Norway spruce. Dette er smigrende for Norge, da det er langt større forekomster i andre land enn hos oss." (sic!)

          INSTEAD OF:
Panamá City

          USE:   Ciudad de Panamá

          INSTEAD OF:
people

          USE:  sometimespopulation,   inhabitants
COMMENTARY:  English-speakers usually say, for instance: "the french people", "the greek people", and so on, when they mean the whole populations of the states of France or Greece, etc., ignoring the fact that not all inhabitants of France are french, not all inhabitants of Greece are greeks, and so on. This practice is in fact ethnic discrimination.
       However, if you say "the french population", it means that part of the population who are french, excluding all the others who live in France. Therefore, in english it must be: "the population of France".
       In spanish they really use the term population, however not correctly. Instead of the current, but wrong "la población francesa" when referring to all inhabitants of France, one should say "la población de Francia". - The reason why spanish-speakers use (and alas, abuse) the word "población" in this sense, is that the word "pueblo" in modern spanish most often means "village". But it can also mean "people".

          INSTEAD OF:
province

          USE:   region,  or, sometimes: country
COMMENTARY:  The word "province", in latin language "provincia", was derived from a verb which means that an area and its population has been vanquished, subdued and chained by a superior power.
       Collins English Dictionary lists for "province":  "....regarded as outside the mainstream of sophisticated culture", and for "provincial":  "....rustic, unsophisticated, limited", and that "provincialism" primarily means:  "narrowness of mind or outlook; lack of sophistication".
       These words frankly express every master people's (herrenvolk's) contempt towards the politically less powerful peoples and the geographically less benefited areas.

          INSTEAD OF:
racism, racist

          USE:   sometimes -----------------
COMMENTARY:  English dictionaries list "master race = herrenvolk".  But such ideas are far from always connected with physical racial differences. For example, swedes have learnt to behave and act as a master people towards all other peoples of Scandinavia, Finland and Denmark. However, this and many other cases have nothing to do with races, as racial differences either do not exist or they are irrelevant. Therefore, "master people" or "master nation" should be more correct language than the often misleading term "master race".
       Note that "nazism" or "fascism" are sometimes correcter words than "racism".

             INSTEAD OF:
Romeabout the city
          USE:  
Roma
COMMENTARY:  The latin and the italian name is Roma. We can use the name Rome as synonym for the Roman Empire, but the city should be Roma.  See: Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.

          INSTEAD OF:
Russia
;   = 1923-1991
          USE:   most often the Soviet Union

          INSTEAD OF:
Russian
;   = before 1991
          USE:   sometimes: sovietic,   sometimes: czarist, or tsarist

          INSTEAD OF:
sacred nation
USE:   so-called "sacred nation",   master nation,   hubristic people,   master people,   herrenvolk,   devil's nation
COMMENTARY:   See above:  racism, racist.

          INSTEAD OF:
Spain

          USE:   sometimes: Iberia
COMMENTARY:  Spain is a state and a realm. But sometimes, for instance when treating subjects like weather, nature, and so on, many people say and write "Spain", even when they mean, or they should mean the whole Iberian Peninsula. Within this peninsula there are two state territories: of Spain and of Portugal. It is wrong to call (the territories of) both Portugal and Spain together by the name "Spain".
       Rarely, there may be some difficulty because there has been another Iberia in another part of the world. In Antiquity, Iberia was not only the name of the southwestern peninsula of Europe, but also of a country south of the Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea.
       In our time, Iberia is also the name of an airliner owned by the state of Spain.

          INSTEAD OF:
Spaniard
          USE:   sometimes: catalan, castilian, andalucian, asturian, etc.
COMMENTARY:  Not seldom, it would suit better to use the name of the inhabitants of a region, instead of lumping everybody into the wide sack of, e. g. "spaniards". People also speak other languages than castilian (= spanish) in Galizia/Galicia, Asturia and Catalonia. In the south, andalusian language also distinguishes itself from what is usually meant by castilian.
       In South Europe and in parts of Central Europe, it is common that people identify themselves primarily by their regional or local identity, and reckon membership of a state as a secondary identity.

          INSTEAD OF:
Spanish
;   adjective, -  geographically, but not politically
          USE:   sometimesiberian

          INSTEAD OF:
the Spanish-American War
          USE:  the Spain-US War

          INSTEAD OF:
Sri Lanka

          USE:   Lanka
COMMENTARY:  The sinhalese name of the island is Lanka. As a british dominion it was officially named Dominion of Lanka. "Sri" means glorious, shining, and majesty or holiness, and is a title of honour when addressing a distinguished hindu person. Originally it was a name of one of Vishnu's wives, who was also known as Lakshmi.
       Anti-nazi and non-nazi language shuld cancel out all words and phrases that indicate deification of state-nations. No temporal state deserves to be worshipped as a god or goddess. The affected title of "Sri" before Lanka is no better than "Grossdeutsches Reich".
       Unfortunately, the name with "sri" in it has a long tradition. Until 1971 the island of Lanka was known in english usually as "Ceylon", pronounced "see-lo'n".
       Cf. also above: Great Britain, which should always be: Britain.

          INSTEAD OF:
Sri Lankan

          USE:   lankese,  or: lankan
COMMENTARY:  See above.  "Lankese" is an established english word.

          INSTEAD OF:
Turkey ;   = as a geographical term, or about a geographial location
          USE:   often:  Asia Minor,   Anatolia
COMMENTARY:  The major part of the present territory of the state of Turkey consists of the geographical country and peninsula of Asia Minor. The Turkey state territory east of this peninsula is made up predominantly of parts of Kurdistan and parts of the country of Armenia (NB! this is of course not identical with the territory of the present state of Armenia). Until the 1920s there was no state named Türkiye (Turkey). Anatolia/Asia Minor belonged to the Ottoman Empire, but only since the 1300s. There was no turkish, and no turkic, population in Asia Minor before the 1000s.
EXAMPLE:  The stone age settlement of Çatal Hüyük is in southern Turkey Asia Minor, - or: in southern Anatolia.


          INSTEAD OF:
un-American
;   (when not part of proper names of organizations, etc.)
USE:   -------------------,   so-called un-american,   so-called un-usanian,   not in the interest of the US,   not mainstream north american
COMMENTARY:  Instead of changing "un-American" into another word or expression, you should most often avoid the whole phrase with that word in it.

          INSTEAD OF:
United Nations,  UN

          Whenever possible, USE:    World Organization of States = WOS,   WOS/"UN",   so-called "United Nations",   or maybe:  second League of States
COMMENTARY:  In accordance with the anglo-french false concepts of "nation", the so-called "United Nations" organization excludes per its false definition the majority of nations in the world from membership. There are many hundreds of true nations = ethnic communities, which have no independent states to represent them in that world organization.
       If membership of the organization shall also in the future be reserved for independent states only, the organization badly needs a new name.
       The "UN" specialized agencies and the "UN" declarations and conventions on human rights have contributed greatly to a better and safer world. They definitely do not deserve to be represented by state totalitarian newspeak names.
       This wordbook recommends that we use and propagate the name World Organization of States = WOS.
       Compare also with League of Nations, above.

          INSTEAD OF:
Veniceabout the city
         USE:   Venezia
COMMENTARY: 
See Anti-totalitarian grammar, § 6.  For the whole territory of the former republic, and for its trading empire, we may use the name Venice.

            INSTEAD OF:
Vienna
         USE:   Wien

            INSTEAD OF:
Warsaw
         USE:   Warszawa


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